Foundation is a particularly important element of any construction, whether it is a summer house or a high-rise building.
Its task is to keep the building firmly and correctly impart the load into the ground.
Of all types of foundations there are 4 main types:
- Mixed (represent a combination of spread or strip foundation with post foundation);
- Separate (have the form of pillars, which are connected by beams or arches to provide support to the walls of the building);
- Strip (long “strip” foundation for building control points);
- Spread (have all kind of plates for construction. Typically used for small construction – monuments, bridges, etc.).
The foundation must have the following properties:
- Optimal shape design for each building;
- Do not exceed the requirements of National State Standard (GOST) and Construction Norms and Rules (SNiP) ;
- Resistance to various operating forces ( as in the soil and on the surface);
- Have a good durability and resistance to different influences (groundwater).
Structural elements of the foundation:
Design of foundation:
- Geology of the ground
- Select the type of foundation, fitting the structure the best;
- Calculation of load on the foundation, the definition of its carrying capacity;
- Calculation of rainfall;
- Selection of the size of the foundation, the design features;
- The depth of the calculation;
- Selection of the most suitable materials.
Foundation of the house is an invisible structure that has not, in fact, nothing to do with the design or style of construction. Price reports the foundation is about 15-20% of the total cost of the project. In some cases such as the presence of a basement up to 30%. Construction of the foundation of the house is a very important task, because it is about the foundation. It should always be reliable. The foundation accepts not only the load of the house, but also pressures from the wind, dynamic action on the ground by passing vehicles. Durability and stability of the foundation influence the durability and stability of the whole building.